magistrate judges - Judicial officers who assist U.S. district court judges in getting cases ready for trial. The study of law and the structure of the legal system Jury Courts are often bound by the decisions of appellate courts with authority to review their decisions. Did you know… We have over 220 college public defenders - Represent defendants who can't afford an attorney in criminal matters. Additionally, there is the challenge of learning the Latin terms, which can still be confusing once you know the English translation. When a mistrial is declared, the trial must start again, beginning with the selection of a new jury. Eric was the custodian of Amy, and was the executor of her father's will. judge - Government official with authority to decide lawsuits brought before courts. Get access risk-free for 30 days, ⓘ Legal terminology. transcript - A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial or during some other conversation. temporary restraining order - Prohibits a person from an action that is likely to cause irreparable harm. The plaintiff initially decides where to bring the suit, but in some cases, the defendant can seek to change the court. However, a foundation of legal terminology is a good start in understanding courtroom lingo and legal documents. Contact the Webmaster to submit comments. Understanding of legal terminology provides a starting point to work in any legal situation; from law office manager to employment in security, policing or politics. issue - (1) The disputed point in a disagreement between parties in a lawsuit. Bankruptcy judges preside over these proceedings. trial - A hearing that takes place when the defendant pleads "not guilty,” and the parties are required to come to court to present evidence. circumstantial evidence - All evidence that is not direct evidence (such as eyewitness testimony). The first selection of terms has to do with words and phrases seen in the courtroom regarding judgements on cases. Magistrate is another name for what occupation? Participants (plaintiffs and defendants) in lawsuits are called litigants. 's' : ''}}. inculpatory evidence - Evidence which tends to show the defendant’s guilt. Different terms may have different meanings based on the specific area of law or the context in which they are being used. Guilty - Admitting to committing the crime. "Voir dire" is a phrase meaning "to speak the truth.". litigation - A case, controversy, or lawsuit. This class is ideal for those looking to enter the legal or business world and for anyone who has ever been confused by legal language. settlement - Parties to a lawsuit resolve their difference without having a trial. victim advocate - work with prosecutors and assist the victims of a crime. Private Law: Definitions and Differences, Criminal Law vs. Civil Law: Definitions and Differences, Substantive Law vs. A term rule is in the nature of a day rule, by which a prisoner is enabled by the terms of one rule, instead of a daily rule, to quit the prison or its rules for the purpose of transacting his business. writ - A formal written command, issued from the court, requiring the performance of a specific act. GLOSSARY OF LEGAL TERMINOLOGY Edited and Expanded by John Lombardi A/K/A:Acronym that stands for "also known as" and introduces any alternative or assumed names or aliases of an individual. “Reasonable person” is one we all have trouble with, but especially non-lawyers, as it has specific legal meaning, that is it is more limited than as used in general language. 2. Terms are listed in alphabetical order and can be better accessed by choosing a letter here: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z. acquittal - Judgment that a criminal defendant has not been proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. Lawyers must file a variety of documents throughout the life of a case. Also known as a ‘defendant’ in admiralty and corporations matters and in some courts. Study.com has thousands of articles about every compensatory damages: Damages that are recovered for injury or economic loss. For example, hearsay is often admissible during the preliminary hearing but not at trial. (2) To send out officially, as in to issue an order. Much like learning a foreign language, developing a basic understanding of some of the essential terms can help you navigate legal documents. Basic legal terminology that may be covered in the Texas Legal Interpreting written test. cross-examine - Questioning of a witness by the attorney for the other side. Deposition - A statement provided to an officer of the law or lawyer, which is usually used to determine credibility and reliability of a witness. This differs from an injunction in that it may be granted immediately, without notice to the opposing party, and without a hearing. Diligence - Opposite of negligence, this shows proper care of a subject or situation. You can test out of the When dealing with legal matters or starting an education in law, there are basic terms that can help you understand courtroom and legal documents. voir dire - The process by which judges and lawyers select a petit jury from among those eligible to serve by questioning them to determine knowledge of the facts of the case and a willingness to decide the case only on the evidence presented in court. Legal Terminology In 1974, a group of legal interpreting experts convened in Michigan to develop a manual to be used in training legal interpreters. A concurring opinion agrees with the end result of the court but offers further comment possibly because they disagree with how the court reached its conclusion. What is legal language? contract - An agreement between two or more persons that creates an obligation to do or not to do a particular thing. The short declaration at the end of a legal paper showing that the paper was duly executed and acknowledged. probation officers (or pretrial services officers) - Screen applicants for pretrial release and monitor convicted offenders released under court supervision. judgment - The official decision of a court finally determining the respective rights and claims of the parties to a suit. Form. Legal terminology is the collection of words and phrases that have a precise or peculiar use in the law profession. information - A formal accusation by a government attorney that the defendant committed a misdemeanor. What is Retributive Justice? The following terms are just the most popular ones. The Supreme Court is usually not required to hear appeals of cases. court - Government entity authorized to resolve legal disputes. Under the protection of the bankruptcy court, debtors may discharge their debts, perhaps by paying a portion of each debt. Permission given to a person to sue without payment of court fees on claim of indigence or poverty. 471 words Karen Ratay Spanish Interpreter and Translator Edited by Bruce Goodman Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free. All our Wills are written as simply as possible, which is the way it should be. warrant - An arrest warrant is a written order directing the arrest of a party. conviction - A judgment of guilt against a criminal defendant. Relief - This term is used to refer to compensation in a civil suit, such as child support. counterclaim - A claim that a defendant makes against a plaintiff. Affidavits must be notarized or administered by an officer of the court with such authority. Negligence - A situation in which someone did not pay attention or take the requisite level of care. Understanding Legal Terminology. This legal glossary is a basic guide to common legal terms. Procedural Law: Definitions and Differences, The Court System: Trial, Appellate & Supreme Court, The 3 Levels of the Federal Court System: Structure and Organization, Court Functions: Original and Appellate Jurisdiction, Subject Matter Jurisdiction: Federal, State and Concurrent, Jurisdiction over Property: Definition & Types. As a legal term, however, the word allege is used to describe the action of formally stating a specific charge in a court of law or legal document. continuance - Decision by a judge to postpone trial until a later date. The chief judge also decides cases, and the choice of chief judges is determined by seniority. See Rules. Accused the person charged with a criminal offence. Legal translation may also imply that it is a specific type of translation only used in law, which is not always the case. plea deal (or plea bargain or agreement) - Agreement between the defendant and prosecutor where the defendant pleads guilty in exchange for a concession by the prosecutor. (English common law is the basis of state legal systems in the U.S., with the exception of Louisiana.) Arrest warrants are issued by a judge after a showing of probable cause. lt is obtained in the same manner as a day rule. - Definition & Function, Fiscal Stimulus: Definition, Multiplier Effect & Price Levels, Cash Basis Accounting Method: Definition & Example, Quiz & Worksheet - Quantitative & Qualitative Business Information, Quiz & Worksheet - Goal Setting as Part of Management, Quiz & Worksheet - Ethics & Social Responsibility in the Global Market, Quiz & Worksheet - Quantitative Analysis in Business Choices, Quiz & Worksheet - Organizational Interrelationships & Aims, CSET Business - Organizational Culture and Structure, CSET Business - Ethical & Social Responsibility, CSET Business - Production & Operations Management, California Sexual Harassment Refresher Course: Supervisors, California Sexual Harassment Refresher Course: Employees. credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. Sociology 110: Cultural Studies & Diversity in the U.S. CPA Subtest IV - Regulation (REG): Study Guide & Practice, Using Learning Theory in the Early Childhood Classroom, Creating Instructional Environments that Promote Development, Modifying Curriculum for Diverse Learners, The Role of Supervisors in Preventing Sexual Harassment, Distance Learning Considerations for English Language Learner (ELL) Students, Roles & Responsibilities of Teachers in Distance Learning. federal question - Jurisdiction given to federal courts in cases involving the interpretation and application of the U.S. Constitution, acts of Congress, and treaties. appeal - A request made after a trial, asking another court (usually the court of appeals) to decide whether the trial was conducted properly. A denial of “cert” by the Supreme Court allows the previous ruling to stand. 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